Indicators are an essential part of any M&E system to help it capture signs of progress. A key challenge with indicators is to ensure both their quality and integrity. Are the indicators generating data that is necessary and useful? And does this data also correctly represent the progress of the intervention?
This study identifies and addresses key challenges concerning M&E for CCA. It does so by documenting good practices and good practice principles on the development, selection, and use of indicators used in the M&E of adaptation interventions. This study asserts that indicators are not “one size fits all” but that they are case-specific and context-dependent. Consequently, the study does not offer examples of ‘good’ adaptation indicators, but instead provides pragmatic principles as guidance for practitioners developing, selecting, and using indicators. This guidance can prove beneficial to help professionals working on the design of M&E systems.
The study also emphasizes the importance of evaluative evidence supporting adaptation-related policymaking. Lessons learned and findings from evaluations can inform the direction of future policies. To capitalize on that opportunity, the report provides principles that can serve as guidance for both policymakers and evaluators in moving in a common and mutually supportive direction; one that maximizes collaborative evidence-based policy development.
Anna Viggh, a Swedish national, is a Senior Evaluation Officer in the Independent Evaluation Office of the GEF and leads evaluative work on various thematic and cross-cutting topics including gender mainstreaming and adaptation to climate change. Anna manages the Office’s work for the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) and the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF). From 2011–2015, she was the team leader for Thematic Evaluations which included evaluations on gender, focal area strategies, and enabling activities. She has also lead country-level evaluations in Syria, Moldova, Nicaragua and El Salvador, and has worked on evaluations of GEF’s catalytic role and capacity development. Anna has more than 25 years of development and environment experience with the GEF, UNDP, the World Bank and several NGOs.
Prior to joining the GEF, Anna has held different positions at UNDP. For the UNDP/GEF Regional Office for Latin America in Mexico she designed an innovative monitoring tool for oversight of projects in the region. In New York at UNDP headquarters, she developed resource management and planning policies playing an integral role in the landmark legislation on a results-based resource allocation system. Anna was also stationed in the Sierra Leone Country Office managing the development and implementation of the UNDP Country Program. Earlier in her career, she was a member of the core World Development Report teams of the 1990 report on Poverty and the 1989 report on Financial Systems and Development.
Anna holds a Master of Environmental Management from the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies and a Master of Arts in International Affairs from George Washington University.
Dennis Bours works for the IEO as evaluation officer with emphasis on adaptation and resilience. Dennis’ focus is on the GEF adaptation portfolio, consisting of the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) and the Strategic Priority for Adaptation (SPA). His cross-cutting focus is on resilience thinking within the GEF and in evaluation products, as well as applying a gender lens in evaluations. He has also developed guidance on principles of indicator development, specific to adaptation interventions.
Dennis has worked globally for fifteen years as a humanitarian and sustainable development professional, with longer term missions in Angola, Brazil, Cambodia, Congo Dem. Rep., Indonesia, Kenya, Libya, Sudan and Thailand. He has diverse experience in change management, monitoring and evaluation, disaster risk reduction, humanitarian operations management and staff capacity building. As team leader of the Pact / Rockefeller Foundation SEA Change Community of Practice he elevated the adaptation and resilience M&E discussion, being among those setting the agenda and future direction in relation to adaptation and resilience M&E. He has co-authored and co-edited various guidance notes, evaluation reviews and M&E manuals, and co-edited the New Directions for Evaluation journal special edition focusing on adaptation and resilience M&E.
Dennis is liaison representative to the ISO Sub-Committee 7 on GHG management and related standards, committee member of the Kresge/ND-GAIN Urban Adaptation Assessment Advisors Group, advisor to the Rockefeller Foundation resilience community, and steering committee member of the Climate Knowledge Brokers group.
Dennis earned his Bachelors in Commercial Engineering at the Fontys University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands, an MSc in Sustainable Development and Technology Management from Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands, and a second MSc in Supply Chain Management, with a focus on climate risk management in global supply chains, from Robert Gordon University, UK. He has continued to extend his knowledge by engaging in various leadership and change management studies from Cornell University's proactive leadership program.